## Introduction

This article describes how to go from a standard crosstab or summary grid table...

...to a table with **Column Comparisons** based on *Independent Samples Column Means and Proportions tests*:

This rule is also designed to mimic those in introductory statistics courses and in *SPSS Custom Tables*.

## Method

1. Select your table.

2. In the toolbar go to **Automate > Browse Online Library > Significance Testing in Tables > Independent Samples Column Means and Proportions Tests**.

3. OPTIONAL: By default this rule works on grid-style summary questions, but tick **Apply to crosstabs** when applicable.

4. OPTIONAL: Tick **Apply when Column Comparisons are not shown on the table** if you wish to remove the warning which occurs when this statistic is not displayed.

5. OPTIONAL: Tick **Set column comparisons** to specify which columns of the table should be compared, otherwise leave unticked to compare all columns. When this option is selected, you should enter the names of the columns that you would like to compare in the box provided.

In this example, we are comparing columns B through D to column A, so we use the below format:

A/B,A/C,A/D

6. OPTIONAL: Tick **Include settings information in footer**.

7. Set the **Significance Level (alpha) for lowercase letters**, e.g. 0.1 (90%).

8. Set **Significance Level (alpha) for uppercase letters**, e.g. 0.05 (95%).

9. OPTIONAL: Set **Multiple comparison correction**.

10. OPTIONAL: Set **Numeric data variance assumptions (t-test)**.

11. OPTIONAL: Set **Base used in tests of means**.

12. OPTIONAL: Set **Proportions test**.

13. OPTIONAL: Set **Base used in test of proportions**.

14. Set the **Minimum sample size in a column to include in testing**.

15. OPTIONAL: Enter the names of **Columns to ignore from testing**, one per box.

16. Press **OK**.

17. Select **Column Comparisons** in the table via right-click **> Statistics - Cells**.

Please note the following:

- This rule works by over-riding/ignoring settings and safe-guards built into Q. Many of the settings that are over-ridden are designed to protect users from problems in their data, so when applying this rule a higher degree of diligence is required in checking results.
- This rule over-rides the settings in
**Statistical Assumptions**via**Edit > Project Options > Customize**. - In various situations, the formulas used for computing significance in this rule may give incorrect/misleading results (e.g., when the assumption of independence is inappropriate and when the various tests selected are wrong).
**Effective sample size**is computed as**Effective Base n * Column Population / Base Population**.- When the question selected in the
**Blue**drop-down is a**Pick One - Multi**,**Pick Any - Grid**, or a**Number - Grid**, the sample size used in the test is the**Sample Size**(or**Base Population**, or**Effective Base n**, otherwise the**Column n**(or the**Column Population**, or**Effective Column n**) is used. - Simplified Independent Complex Samples T-Test - Comparing Two Means is used when
**Numeric data variance assumptions (t-test)**is set to**Complex samples**. - Independent Samples T-Test - Unequal Variance is used when
**Numeric data variance assumptions (t-test)**is set to**Unequal variance**. When this option is selected in conjunction with setting**Base used in test of means**to**Weighted sample size**and**Multiple comparison correction**is set to**None**, the resulting tests correspond to an an*Independent Samples T-Test*in SPSS with*Equal variances not assumed*. - Independent Samples T-Test - Equal Variance is used when
**Numeric data variance assumptions (t-test)**is set to**Equal variance (categories compared)**. When this option is selected in conjunction with setting**Base used in test of means**to**Weighted sample size**and**Multiple comparison correction**to**None**, the resulting tests correspond to an*Independent Samples T-Test*in SPSS with*Equal variances assumed*and also to**Compare column means (t-tests)**with**Estimate variance only from the categories compared**selected in SPSS Custom Tables, except where the columns are from multiple response questions. - Independent Samples T-Test - Pooled Variance is used when
**Numeric data variance assumptions (t-test)**is set to**Equal variance (all non-ignored categories)**. When this option is selected in conjunction with setting**Base used in test of means**to**Weighted sample size**and**Multiple comparison correction**to**None**, the resulting tests correspond to**Compare column means (t-tests)**with**Estimate variance only from the categories compared**not selected in SPSS Custom Tables, except where the columns are from multiple response questions. - Simplified Independent Complex Samples T-Test - Comparing Two Proportions is used when
**Proportions test**is set to**Complex samples t-test**. - Independent Samples Z-Test - Comparing Two Proportions (Pooled) is used when
**Proportions test**is set to**Pooled z-test**. When this option is selected in conjunction with setting**Base used in test of proportions**to**Weighted sample size**and**Multiple comparison correction**is set to**None**, the resulting tests correspond to**Compare column proportions (z-tests)**in SPSS Custom Tables. - Independent Samples Z-Test - Comparing Two Proportions (Un-Pooled) is used when
**Proportions test**is set to**Un-pooled z-test**

## Next

How to Apply Significance Testing in Q

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